I-Plastic PP PE PS PA ABS PVC, uyazi?

Ngikholelwa ukuthi abangani abaningi baseChina bahlangane nalolu hlobo lwesimo, isitsha sokupakisha ezindaweni zokudlela, babuyela ekhaya, bathola ukuthi kwakukhona umgodi omkhulu ezansi emabhokisini epulasitiki okupakisha, isilinganiso ukuthi izinga eliphansi lamabhokisi epulasitiki angamafutha aphezulu izinga lokushisa liyancibilika, futhi ngokuhlekisa lathi kulinganiselwa ukuthi kudliwe uhhafu wokudla kwepulasitiki, futhi abazi ukuthi yini leyo nto.

upulasitiki

Lolu hlobo lwebhokisi elishisayo elilula yibhokisi elenziwe ngamagwebu, elenziwe nge-resin le-polystyrene njengegwebu elenzelwe impahla eluhlaza. Eminyakeni yakamuva lolu hlobo lwebhokisi lubonakala lusebenzisa kancane eChina.

 

Manje kunezinto ezahlukahlukene zebhokisi lokudla, ezinye ezimakwe njenge-PP, i-PS, ne-Pvc materials, okungukuthi, abazi ukuthi banamuphi umehluko, abazi ukuthi yimuphi umonakalo emzimbeni womuntu.

Ipulasitiki iyingxenye ebalulekile yempilo yethu manje, eyodwa futhi ingaqonda kusuka ngokoqobo ingabumba into, luhlobo lwe-polymer material, ingxenye eyinhloko iyinhlanganisela ye-polymer yokwenziwa, futhi iyibize ngokuthi i-resin yokwenziwa, ukuze ikhule ukusebenza okuthile komkhiqizo, kuzongeza ezinye izithasiselo ukushintsha ukusebenza kwawo, bese kuthiwani ipulasitiki, ukuthi ungahlukanisa kanjani phakathi kwazo zonke izinhlobo zezinto zepulasitiki.

ipulasitiki 2

 

Amapulasitiki okuqala avela ngekhulu le-19. Abantu bafaka i-camphor nenani elincane lotshwala ku-cellulose yemvelo ukwenza amapulasitiki okufakelwa. Lolu hlobo lwezinto ezibonakalayo lunepulasitiki. Ngaphansi kokucindezela okushisayo, imikhiqizo ehlukahlukene ingakhiwa, ebizwa nge-celluloid. Kusukela lapho, umlando wokusebenzisa oplastiki usuqalile. Ekhulwini lama-20, kuye kwavela amapulasitiki okwenziwa nge-polymer.

 

Ngokwesakhiwo samangqamuzana, ipulasitiki luhlobo lwe-polymer, okwenza kube lula kakhulu ukulolonga. Kungazwisiseka ngokoqobo ukuthi kuyinto ephathekayo. Ikakhulukazi esimweni sokushisa okuphezulu nasesimweni sokucindezelwa okuphezulu, iningi lepulasitiki likhishwa ezintweni zokubasa ezimbiwa phansi. Uwoyela negesi yemvelo yizinto zokusetshenziswa eziyinhloko, futhi ziba yizinto eziphelele zepulasitiki.

ipulasitiki 3

 

Inqubo yokukhiqiza iPlastiki

Okokuqala, kukhishwa uwoyela ongahluziwe kanye negesi yemvelo, bese kuthunyelwa ezindaweni zokuhluza ukuze kukhishwe izinto eziningi, kufaka phakathi izinto eziyinhloko zepulasitiki, okungukuthi, i-ethane ikhishwa ku-oyela, i-propane ikhishwa kugesi wemvelo, i-ethane ne-propane ithunyelwa ekuqhekekeni izitshalo ukubola izingxenye, i-ethane isetshenziselwa ukwenza i-ethylene, i-propane isetshenziselwa ukwenza i-propylene, bese kuhlanganiswa i-catalyst ukuhlanganisa ama-molecule akha i-resin polymer, ipulasitiki ngenxa yalesi sakhiwo kulula ukuyakha ngaphansi kokushisa okuphezulu nokucindezela.

I-Polymerization iguqula i-ethylene ibe yi-polyethylene, i-propylene ibe yi-polypropylene. Lezi zinhlaka ziyancibilika bese zipholile, bese zisikwa zibe izinhlayiya zepulasitiki eziluhlaza. Izinhlayiya zepulasitiki zithunyelwa efektri ukuze zifudunyezwe ukwenza imikhiqizo ehlukahlukene yepulasitiki.

upulasitiki 4

 

Iningi lezinto zokusetshenziswa zepulasitiki zisobala noma zimhlophe okobisi. Ukuze usebenzise noma ukuklama, zonke izinhlobo zemikhiqizo yepulasitiki zidinga ukuba nazo zonke izinhlobo zemibala, edinga ukudayiswa ngenkathi kucutshungulwa ipulasitiki. Indlela ejwayelekile yokudaya ukuxuba ingxenye ethile ye-Colour Masterbatch noma i-color powder ezintweni zokusetshenziswa ngaphambi kokukhiqizwa, bese uvumela izinto zokusetshenziswa nombala we-masterbatch noma umbala we-powder uncibilike ndawonye emshinini wokubumba umjovo ukukhiqiza imikhiqizo edingekayo Umbala.

ipulasitiki 5

Imikhiqizo yeplastiki enezimo nobukhulu obuhlukahlukene iyasetshenziswa empilweni. Imodi yokukhiqiza eyinhloko yale mikhiqizo epulasitiki ukubumba ngomjovo. Kule nqubo, izinto ezintathu ezidingekayo izinto zokwakha zepulasitiki, isikhunta, umshini wokubumba umjovo. Inqubo yokubumba umjovo ukufaka izinto zokusetshenziswa emshinini we-hopper, uzihlanganise bese uzincibilikisa emshinini wokujova umjovo, bese ugcwalisa isikhunta ngezinto zokusetshenziswa. Izinto zokusetshenziswa zipholile ngokushesha futhi zibunjwe kusikhunta Ngemuva kokuvula isikhunta, khipha umkhiqizo.

upulasitiki 6

Enye indlela yokucubungula ejwayelekile ukubumba ngegalelo. Zonke izinhlobo zamabhodlela epulasitiki, amathini, imigqomo, njll. Kuqondakala kahle ukuthi ngemuva kokuba izinto ezingavuthiwe sezincibilikile, zishaye ngesikhunta ukuze zibunjwe.

Umehluko enembile kunazo zonke phakathi umjovo udini futhi igalelo udini ukuthi umkhiqizo umjovo umnyombo esiqinile futhi igalelo udini kuyinto core eziyize.

 

ipulasitiki 7

Empilweni yethu yansuku zonke, ngaphezu kwe-70% yezidingo zansuku zonke yimikhiqizo yepulasitiki, phakathi kwayo okuyizinto eziphambili zepulasitiki i-PP, PS, PA, PC, PE, ABS, PVC. Ukuzehlukanisa, sidinga ukuqonda izici nokwehluka kwazo. Ngaphambi kokuba siwaqonde, kufanele siqonde ukuthi yini i-thermosetting plastic kanye ne-thermoplastic.

I-Thermosetting plastic luhlobo lweplastiki oludinga ukufudunyezwa ukuze luqine ngesikhathi sokucubungula nokwakhiwa. Ukuxuba izinhlobo ezimbili zepulasitiki bese uzijova kwisikhunta ngasikhathi sinye. Ngemuva kokuthi ukusabela kubangelwe ukufudumeza, i-molecule eyodwa izoba yinethiwekhi enezinhlangothi ezintathu, okungukuthi, ipulasitiki ezoqina ngemuva kokushisa. Izinzuzo ukuphikisana nokushisa okuphezulu, futhi okungekuhle ukuthi akulula ukuphinda usisebenzise futhi usisebenzise kabusha. I-Thermosetting plastic inebhavu le-FRP, i-Tableware njalonjalo.

I-Thermoplastic yipulasitiki ezoncibilika ngemuva kokushisa, okungukuthi, izinhlayiya zepulasitiki eziqinile zizofudunyezwa, bese zifakwa kwisikhunta ngemuva kokuncibilika kwepulasitiki. Ngemuva kokuthi umkhiqizo oqediwe uphola futhi uqina, umkhiqizo uzophela. Ubuhle ukuthi umkhiqizo ungaphinde usebenzise kabusha, futhi okungalungile ukuthi awunamandla okumelana nokushisa. I-thermoplastic ifaka i-PE, i-PP, i-PS, i-PVC, i-ABS, i-PA, i-PC, njll.

Ngamunye wethu unekhadi lakhe likamazisi. Ingakwazi ukuhlukanisa ubunikazi bawo wonke umuntu. Ngabe ipulasitiki nayo ingahlukanisa? Ngemuva kokuthenga imikhiqizo yepulasitiki, uma uyibuka ngokucophelela, uzobona ukuthi kunenombolo egobolondweni lomkhiqizo, okuwukuhlukanisa izinhlobo zepulasitiki. Ikhodi yokuhlonza epulasitiki eyakhiwe yenziwa emhlabeni wonke jikelele. Ngunxantathu owakhiwe ngemicibisholo emithathu ejikelezayo ngokwewashi, ngezinombolo ezimele into ngayinye emakwe phakathi. Okwamanje, kunamakhodi ayisikhombisa wokukhomba, ngaphandle kokuthi Siyayazi impahla epulasitiki ngokufaka amakhodi, futhi into ebaluleke kakhulu ukusiza ekwenzeni kabusha, okungahlukaniswa kusetshenziswe futhi.

ipulasitiki 8

 

Ikhodi 1 ye-PET (i-polyester) engu-1, ebizwa nangokuthi i-polyester resin, impahla eluhlaza ingamanzi amhlophe noma aphuzi ngokukhanyayo, ukwenza izinto obala okuhle, okungeyona into enobuthi, ngobuningi obukhulu, ubulukhuni obuphakeme, ukugqokwa okungazweli, kepha hhayi ukumelana namabhalisha amanzi ashisayo, i-alkali kanye ezinye izici, izinga lokushisa lokusetshenziswa liyi-65 ℃ ~ - 20 ℃, ngaphezu kwaleli zinga lokushisa okulula ukukhipha izinto ezinobungozi, alinakusetshenziswa kaninginingi isikhathi eside, lisetshenziselwa amabhodlela okuphuza ezintweni zokupakisha, Amabhodlela amanzi amaminerali, amagobolondo nezinsiza ezintweni ezisebenza ngogesi, njll.

 

Ikhodi 2 ye-HDPE (high density polyethylene), eyaziwa nangokuthi ingcindezi ephansi ye-ethylene, imhlophe, ayinabuthi futhi ayinambitheki. Inezici zobuningi obuphansi, ukuqina okuhle, ukumelana ne-asidi ne-alkali, kepha ukumelana nokuguga okuncane. Kunzima ukuhlanza nokuvuselela kabusha. Isetshenziselwa ikakhulukazi ukuwasha amabhodlela, izintambo kanye ne-cable sheath.

 

I-PVC (i-polyvinyl chloride) ikhodi 3, eyaziwa nangokuthi ifilimu yokunamathisela, impahla eluhlaza iphuzi futhi iyaguquguquka, ngokubonakala okuhle, amandla aphezulu, ukuguquguquka okuhle, akulula ukuba brittle nezinye izici. I-PVC ihlukaniswe yaba lukhuni futhi ithambile. Umehluko phakathi kwabo kuya ngokuthi i-ejenti ethambile ingeziwe yini. I-PVC uqobo ayiyona into enobuthi. Uma i-plasticizer ne-antioxidant ingeziwe, iyoba yingozi. Ngakho-ke, i-PVC ethambile ayinabo ubuthi. I-Hard PVC inobuthi Ukusetshenziswa ezintweni zokupakisha, imboni yezinto zokwakha epayipini, iminyango namawindi.

LDPE (low density polyethylene) code 4, also known as high-pressure polyethylene, the raw material is Milky white, ayinambitheki futhi ayinabuthi, ngokusebenza obala okuhle, ukuthamba okuhle, ukumelana ne-alkali, kepha ukumelana nokushisa okubi nezinye izici, ukuminyana iyona ephansi kunazo zonke i-polyethylene, engaphezu kuka-110 ℃ izokhishwa ngokushisa okushisa okushisa okushisa kakhulu, okusetshenziselwa ifilimu eligcina okusha, ifilimu yepulasitiki, njll.

 

I-PP (polypropylene) ikhodi 5, eyaziwa nangokuthi i-100 fold glue, inokuqina okuncane, ukubonakala okusobala nokukhanya kwezinto zokusetshenziswa, okungenabuthi nokunganambitheki, amandla aphezulu nokunwebeka, ukumelana namakhemikhali, ukumelana nokushayisana, ukumelana nokushisa okuphezulu kwe-100-120 ℃, futhi ingafakwa kuhhavini le-microwave yokufudumeza, kepha kwenqatshelwe ukusebenzisa imikhiqizo eyenziwe kabusha ukuqukatha ukudla. Izinto ze-PP zivame ukusetshenziswa emabhokisini epulasitiki, izinkomishi zamanzi, amabhokisi okupakisha kokudla neminye imikhiqizo, ngoba i-PP inemali yase-Australia Ngakho-ke yenziwe ngalolu hlobo lweplastiki.

Ikhodi 6 ye-PS (polystyrene), ebizwa nangokuthi i-hard rubber, inobulukhuni obuphakeme kune-PP. Izinto zokusetshenziswa zinokuhanjiswa okuphezulu, okungenambala futhi akunambitheki, futhi okulula ukudaya. Kodwa-ke, ubunzima bayo buphansi futhi bukhulu. Lapho izinga lokushisa lidlula ama-degree angama-70, lizokhipha izinto eziyingozi. Ijwayele ukusetshenziswa emabhokisini alahlwayo enziwe ngegwebu, okokufaka impahla, izinto zokuhlobisa, njll., Ngoba akulula ukuphinda usebenzise kabusha, futhi manje kancane kancane uwafaka ngezinto zokwenza iphepha.

I-PA (i-polyamide), eyaziwa nangokuthi i-nylon, ayinayo ikhodi. Izinto zokusetshenziswa azinabo ubuthi futhi azinaphunga, zinokuqina okuhle, ziyamelana nokugqoka, ziyamelana nokushisa futhi ziyamelana namakhemikhali. Kunezinhlobo eziningi zeplastiki ze-PA. Ikakhulukazi manje, ngokuxuba izinto ezahlukahlukene zefayibha, ukusebenza kwe-PA plastiki kuthuthukiswe kakhulu, okushintshe ezinye izinsimbi, futhi kusetshenziswa kakhulu ezingxenyeni zezimoto, igobolondo lokwenza umsebenzi wasendlini, izindatshana zokuvikela neminye imikhakha.

I-ABS plastic nayo ayinayo ikhodi. Kuyinhlanganisela ye-acrylonitrile (a), butadiene (b) ne-styrene (c), eyaziwa nangokuthi i-resin ye-ABS. Ngakho-ke i-ABS inokusebenza okuvamile kwalezi zinto ezintathu, njengokumelana nomthelela, ukumelana nokushisa, ukumelana nokushisa okuphansi, ukusebenza okuhle okuphelele, intengo ephansi, ukusetshenziswa okubanzi, izinhlayiya ezingenabuthi, ezinganambitheki, eziguqukayo noma ezisobala ngokubukeka. Izingxenye eziningi zemoto zenziwe ngepulasitiki ye-ABS, izingxenye zemishini yasendlini nemishini yasehhovisi nayo yenziwe nge-ABS.

Eminye imikhakha, ikhodi 7, ifaka i-acrylic, i-polycarbonate, i-polylactic acid, njll. Izici zala mapulasitiki ukuthi azikwazi ukufudumeza kuhhavini we-microwave, azikwazi ukufakwa inzalo emazingeni aphezulu okushisa, azikwazi ukudalulwa ngqo ilanga, ngoba lingakhipha i-bisphenol A, lidale umonakalo emzimbeni womuntu, njll.

Empeleni, ukuthuthukiswa kwamapulasitiki kudlulela ngalé kwalokhu okungenhla. Zonke izinhlobo zepulasitiki zokwenziwa zenza abantu badideke ngokungazelelwe. Kungenzeka ukuthi uke wezwa ukuthi i-PBT (kanye nesilwane esifuywayo, esibizwa ngokuthi yi-thermoplastic polyester), okhalweni (i-impact polystyrene engazweli, eyaziwa kakhulu ngokuthi i-plastic plastics), i-POM (i-polymethylaldehyde thermoplastic crystalline polymer), i-EVA (eyenziwe ngophethiloli yi-ethylene ne-acetic acid), njll ziningi kakhulu, asikho isibonelo lapha.

Uzothola ukuthi kunemikhiqizo eminingi epulasitiki engenawo amakhodi wokukhomba, ngakho-ke ungazi kanjani ukuthi ziyini izinto zepulasitiki? Ngaphezu kokusebenzisa amathuluzi obuchwepheshe wokuhlaziya, kunezindlela zokukhomba eziyinhloko nezilula. Vele, le ndlela yenzelwe inkomba kuphela, futhi ayikwazi ukunquma ngokuphelele uhlobo lweplastiki.

ipulasitiki 9

Ukuhlolwa kokuthambisa ukuhlukanisa okokusebenza ngokuya ngobuningi bepulasitiki. Ubuningi bepulasitiki ovamile emakethe buzoba phakathi kuka-0.9-2.0g / cm3 lapho kungekho ezinye izinto ezingeziwe. Ubuningi bamanzi buyi-1g / cm3 ncamashi. Kupulasitiki ovamile, yi-PP ne-PE kuphela enobuningi obungaphansi kuka-1.0, ngakho-ke i-PP ne-PE zingantanta ebusweni bamanzi lapho zifakwa emanzini. Ezinye izinto zepulasitiki zinobuningi obukhulu Amanzi azocwila ezansi.

Ukuhlolwa komlilo, uma ufuna ukuhlukanisa zonke izinhlobo zezinto zepulasitiki ngokucacile, ungazihlukanisa ngokushisa. Isivivinyo somlilo ukushisa zonke izinhlobo zezinto zepulasitiki, ukubona izici nezinguquko enqubeni, bese wahlulela izinto zepulasitiki. Izizwe eziqashelwayo yilezi: umbuso ushiya umthombo womlilo, iphunga lomlilo, umbala welangabi, izwe ngemuva kokusha, nobubanzi obulula bokushisa Imiphumela yokuhlolwa okushisayo isuselwa kwimiphumela ekhethekile yamapulasitiki, angenakusetshenziswa njengesayensi isisekelo sokuhlukanisa amapulasitiki.

 

Isilwanyane siyasha futhi sikhiphe intuthu emnyama ngokunambitheka okumuncu.

I-PP ingasha njalo. Ilangabi liphuzi futhi liluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka. Kunephunga lekhandlela. I-PS nayo ingasha ngaso sonke isikhathi. Ilangabi liphuzi nentuthu emnyama. Ngemuva kokushisa, kukhona uthuli lwekhabhoni nephunga lamafutha ephayini

I-ABS ingasha ngokushesha nangokuqhubekayo ngemuva kokushisa. Ilangabi liphuzi nentuthu emnyama. Ngemuva kokushisa, ithamba ngaphandle kokuconsa, nephunga lenjoloba lisinda kakhulu

Ilangabi le-PE liphuzi futhi liluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka. Iyathamba bese iyaconsa ngemuva kokusha. Kunephunga likaparafini ovuthayo. (ngabe wazishisa izikhwama zepulasitiki lapho useyingane, umuzwa wokuphuma nokuwa awukakhohlakali, khumbula ubuhlungu obusezandleni zakho?)

I-PA akulula ukusha, futhi izocinywa ngemuva kokushiya umthombo womlilo. Ilangabi liphuzi, mpunga nomhlophe intuthu. Ngemuva kokusha, ibhuza futhi iconse, iphunga lesikhumba semvu kanye nezinzipho;

 

I-PVC akulula ukuyishisa, futhi izophuma ngemuva kokushiya umthombo womlilo. Ilangabi liluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka futhi liluhlaza ngentuthu. Kunzima ukuthamba ngemuva kokusha, futhi kunokunambitheka okumuncu okucasulayo. (ifilimu enzima yokuncipha ephakeji yi-PCV)

ipulasitiki 10

Njengoba abantu benaka kakhulu impilo yomzimba, i-bisphenol A ivame ukuvela emibikweni ehlukahlukene. I-Bisphenol A, eyaziwa nangokuthi i-BPA, i-crystal emhlophe, isetshenziselwa ukwenza i-epoxy resin ne-polycarbonate. Ibuye isetshenziswe kabanzi njengesikhuthazo emikhiqizweni yepulasitiki, njengamabhodlela amanzi, amadivayisi wezokwelapha, amabhodlela obisi neminye imikhiqizo. Ukungeza i-bisphenol A kungenza imikhiqizo yepulasitiki ingenambala futhi ibonakale, ithuthukise ukuqina nokukhanya, Kutholakala ngocwaningo ukuthi i-bisphenol A iyikhemikhali eliphansi elinobuthi, elingadala ingozi emzimbeni womuntu, ikakhulukazi empilweni yezinsana nezingane ezisencane. Manje, amazwe amaningi eChina nasemhlabeni avimbela i-bisphenol A ukuthi isetshenziswe emabhodleleni ezingane, amabhodlela amanzi neminye imikhiqizo.

 

Ngenxa yokwanda kokusetshenziswa kwepulasitiki, umkhiqizo wepulasitiki womhlaba wonke nawo uyanda. Iningi lala mapulasitiki liphenduka udoti, ikakhulukazi eminye imikhiqizo epulasitiki elahlwayo. Ingxenye enkulu yazo ayenziwa kabusha, okuzogcina kulimaze izilwane nomhlaba.

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Ngenhlanhla, manje abantu sebekubonile ukulimala kwayo, futhi sebeqalile ukuthatha izinyathelo ezahlukahlukene, njengokunciphisa ukusetshenziswa kwamapulasitiki alahlwayo, besebenzisa izinto ezingaphinde zisebenze, besebenzisa ezinye izinto ukubola amapulasitiki, nokusebenzisa ezinye izinto ezincane ukunciphisa isikhathi sokuwohloka kwamapulasitiki avela emakhulwini yeminyaka kuya ezinsukwini ezimbalwa nje. Amapulasitiki cishe yonke indawo. Kuphela ngokuqonda ngokuphelele amapulasitiki lapho singasebenzisa kahle amaplastiki Ngesikhathi esifanayo, kunganciphisa ukungcoliswa kwepulasitiki emhlabeni.

 


Isikhathi Iposi: Dec-10-2019

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