IPlastiki PP PE PS PA ABS PVC, uyazi?

Ndiyakholelwa ukuba uninzi lwabahlobo baseTshayina badibene nolu hlobo lwemeko, isitya sokupakisha kwiindawo zokutyela, babuyela ekhaya, bafumanisa ukuba kukho umngxuma omkhulu ezantsi kweebhokisi zeplastikhi zokupakisha, uqikelelo ngumgangatho ombi weebhokisi zeplastiki zioyile ephezulu iqondo lobushushu liyanyibilika, ikwatsho ngokuqhula ukuba uqikelelo sisiqingatha sokutya ukutya kwesiqingatha seplastikhi, kananjalo andazi ukuba yintoni le nto.

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Olu hlobo lwebhokisi eshushu ngokulula yibhokisi esisiseko yegwebu, yenziwe ngeplastini yeplasstyini njengogwebu lwezixhobo. Kwiminyaka yakutshanje olu hlobo lwebhokisi lubonakala lusebenzisa kancinci e-China.

 

Ngoku kukho izinto ezahlukeneyo zebhokisi yokutya, ezinye ziphawulwe nge-PP, i-PS, kunye nezinto ze-Pvc, oko kukuthi, andazi ukuba yintoni umahluko, andazi ukuba ngowuphi umonakalo emzimbeni womntu.

Iplastikhi yinxalenye yobomi bethu ngoku, ukungatshatanga nako kunokuqonda ngokusuka ngqo kwizinto ezinokubumba izinto, luhlobo lwezinto zePolymer, eyona nto iphambili sisixhobo sokwenziwa kwepolymer, ikwabiza ngokuba yintsimbi yokwenziwa, ukuze inyuke intsebenzo ethile yemveliso, iya kongeza ezinye izongezo ukutshintsha ukusebenza kwayo, ke yintoni iplastiki, indlela yokwahlula phakathi kwazo zonke iintlobo zezinto zeplastiki.

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Iiplastiki zokuqala zabonakala ngenkulungwane ye-19. Abantu bafaka i-camphor kunye nenani elincinci lotywala kwi-cellulose yendalo ukwenza iiplastiki ezingezizo. Olu hlobo lwezixhobo luneplastikhi. Ngaphantsi koxinzelelo olushushu, iimveliso ezahlukeneyo zinokwenziwa, zibizwa ngokuba yi-celluloid. Ukusukela ngoko, imbali yokusebenzisa iiplastikhi sele iqalile. Kwinkulungwane yama-20, kuye kwavela iiplastikhi zeplastiki zokwenziwa.

 

Ngokumalunga nobume beemolekyuli, iplastiki luhlobo lwepolymer, eyenza kube lula ukuyila. Inokuqondwa ngokoqobo ukuba yinto yeplastiki. Ngokukodwa kubushushu obuphezulu kunye noxinzelelo oluphezulu, uninzi lweplastikhi luthatyathwa kwizibaso. Ioyile kunye negesi yendalo zizinto eziphambili ezingafunekiyo, kwaye ziye zaba zizinto ezifanelekileyo zeplastiki.

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Inkqubo yokuvelisa iplastiki

Okokuqala, kukhutshwa ioyile ekrwada kunye negesi yendalo, emva koko ithunyelwe kwiindawo zokucoca ukuze kukhutshwe izinto ezininzi, kubandakanya ezona zinto ziphambili zeplastikhi, oko kukuthi, i-ethane ikhutshwe kwioyile, ipropane ikhutshwe kwirhasi yendalo, i-ethane kunye nepropane zithunyelwa kuqhekeko izityalo ukubola kwezinto, i-ethane isetyenziselwa ukwenza i-ethylene, ipropane isetyenziselwa ukwenza ipropylene, emva koko kudityaniswa kudityaniswe ukudibanisa iimolekyuli ezenza i-resin polymer, iplastiki ngenxa yesi sakhiwo kulula ukuyila phantsi kobushushu obuphezulu kunye noxinzelelo.

I-Polymerization ijika i-ethylene ibe yi-polyethylene, i-propylene ibe yi-polypropylene. Ezi nkunkuma ziyanyibilika kwaye zipholile, emva koko zisikwe kwiiplastiki zezinto eziluhlaza. Amasuntswana eplastiki athunyelwa kumzi-mveliso ukufudumeza ukwenza iimveliso zeplastikhi ezahlukeneyo.

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Uninzi lwezinto zeplastiki eziluhlaza ziyabonakala okanye zimhlophe ubisi. Ukuze usebenzise okanye uyilo, zonke iintlobo zeemveliso zeplastiki zifuna ukuba nazo zonke iintlobo zemibala, ekufuneka idayiwe kwinkqubo yokulungiswa kweplastiki. Indlela yokudaya eqhelekileyo kukuxuba inani elithile le-Masterbatch yombala okanye umgubo wombala kwizinto ezingaphambi kokuveliswa, kwaye vumela izinto ezingafakwanga kunye nombala we-masterbatch okanye umbala wombala unyibilike kunye kumatshini wokubumba inaliti ukuvelisa iimveliso ezifunekayo Umbala.

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Iimveliso zeplastiki zeemilo ezahlukeneyo kunye nobukhulu zisetyenziswa ebomini. Imowudi yemveliso ephambili yezi mveliso zeplastiki kukubumba ngenaliti. Kule nkqubo, izinto ezintathu ezifunekayo zizinto zeplastiki, izinto zokubumba, umatshini wokubumba inaliti. Inkqubo ziphene yokubumba ukubeka izinto ekrwada kwi hopper umatshini, mix kwaye zinyibilike kumatshini ziphene yokubumba, uze ugcwalise ukungunda kunye izinto ekrwada. Izinto ezingafunekiyo zipholile ngokukhawuleza kwaye zibunjwe kwisikhunta Emva kokuvula ukungunda, thatha imveliso.

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Enye indlela eqhelekileyo yokwenza uqhushululu. Zonke iintlobo zeebhotile zeplastiki, iinkonkxa, imigqomo, njl njl. Kuyaqondakala ukuba emva kokuba izinto ezingafunekiyo zinyibilikile, zivuthele phezulu kumngundo wokubumba.

Umahluko enembile phakathi ziphene yokubumba kunye igalelo yokubumba kukuba imveliso inaliti undoqo eqinileyo kunye igalelo yokubumba na undoqo.

 

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Kubomi bethu bemihla ngemihla, ngaphezulu kwe-70% yezinto eziyimfuneko zemihla ngemihla ziimveliso zeplastiki, phakathi kwazo ezona zinto ziphambili zeplastiki zii-PP, i-PS, i-PA, iPC, i-PE, i-ABS, i-PVC. Ukwahlula kubo, kufuneka siqonde iimpawu kunye nokwahluka kwabo. Ngaphambi kokuba siyiqonde, kufuneka siyiqonde into eyi-thermosetting yeplastiki kunye ne-thermoplastic.

Thermosetting yeplastiki luhlobo lweplastiki olufuna ukufudunyezwa ukuze luqine ngexesha lokwenza kunye nokwenza. Kukuxuba iintlobo ezimbini ezahlukeneyo zeplastiki kwaye uzijoje ekubumbeni ngaxeshanye. Emva kokuba impendulo ibangelwe kukufudumeza, imolekyuli enye iya kuba sisiseko esinamacala amathathu, oko kukuthi, iplastiki eya kuthi iqine emva kokufudumeza. Izinto eziluncedo kukuchasana nobushushu obuphezulu, kwaye izinto ezingalunganga kukuba akukho lula ukuphinda zisetyenziswe kwakhona. I-plastiki ye-Thermosetting inebhafu ye-FRP, i-Tableware njalonjalo.

I-Thermoplastic yiplastiki eya kunyibilika emva kokufudumeza, oko kukuthi, amasuntswana eplastiki aqinileyo aya kufudunyezwa, emva koko afakwe kumbumba emva kokuba inyibilikile. Emva kokuba imveliso egqityiweyo ipholile kwaye iqinisa, imveliso iya kugqitywa. Uncedo kukuba imveliso inokuphinda isetyenziswe kwakhona, kwaye into engalunganga kukuba ayinyangeki bubushushu. I-thermoplastic ibandakanya i-PE, i-PP, i-PS, i-PVC, i-ABS, i-PA, iPC, njl.

Umntu ngamnye kuthi unesazisi sakhe. Iyakwazi ukwahlula bonke abantu. Ngaba iplastiki nayo ingahlula? Emva kokuthenga iimveliso zeplastiki, ukuba uzigcina ngononophelo, uya kubona ukuba kukho inani kwigobolondo lemveliso, eyahlula iintlobo zeplastiki. Ikhowudi yokuchonga yeplastiki ephuhlisiweyo yendalo iphela kwihlabathi liphela. Ngunxantathu owenziwe ngeentolo ezijikelezayo zewotshi ezintathu, ngamanani amele umbandela ngamnye ophawulwe embindini. Okwangoku, zisixhenxe iikhowudi zokuchonga, ngaphandle kokuba Siyazazi izinto zeplastiki ngokufaka iikhowudi, kwaye eyona nto ibaluleke kakhulu kukunceda ekusetyenzisweni kwakhona, okunokwahlulwa kusetyenziswe kwakhona.

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I-PET (ipholiyesta) ikhowudi 1, ekwabizwa ngokuba yi-polyester resin, izinto ezingafunekiyo zimhlophe okanye zimthubi ukukhanya, ukukhanya okucacileyo, ukungabinetyhefu, ngokuxinana okuphezulu, ubulukhuni obuphezulu, ukunxiba okunganyangekiyo, kodwa hayi ukumelana neblister yamanzi ashushu, ialkali kunye Ezinye izinto, iqondo lobushushu lokusetyenziswa li-65 ℃ ~ - 20 ℃, ngaphezulu kobu bushushu kulula ukukhupha izinto ezinobungozi, alinakusetyenziswa ngokuphindaphindiweyo ixesha elide, ikakhulu lisetyenziselwa iibhotile zesiselo kwizixhobo zokupakisha, iibhotile zamanzi ezimbiwa, amaqokobhe kunye nezixhobo kwizixhobo zombane, njl.

 

I-HDPE (polyethylene ephezulu) ikhowudi 2, ekwabizwa ngokuba yi-ethylene yoxinzelelo oluphantsi, imhlophe, ayinetyhefu kwaye ayinancasa. Inempawu zokuxinana okuphantsi, ubunzima obulungileyo, i-asidi kunye nokumelana nealkali, kodwa ukuxhathisa okungalunganga kokuguga. Kunzima ukucoca kunye nokurisayikilisha. Isetyenziswa ikakhulu xa kuhlanjwa iibhotile, iingcingo kunye nentambo esingxotyeni.

 

I-PVC (i-polyvinyl chloride) ikhowudi ye-3, ekwabizwa ngokuba yifilimu yokuncamathela, izinto eziluhlaza zityheli kwaye zinokukhanya okucacileyo, ukukhanya okungagungqiyo, amandla aphezulu, ubhetyebhetye obulungileyo, akukho lula ukuba krakra kunye nezinye izinto. I-PVC yahlulwe yanzima kwaye ithambile. Umahluko phakathi kwabo uxhomekeke ekubeni iarhente ethambileyo yongezwa na. I-PVC ngokwayo ayinatyhefu. Ukuba i-plasticizer kunye ne-antioxidant yongezwa, iya kuba yityhefu. Ke ngoko, iPVC ethambileyo ayinetyhefu. I-PVC eqinileyo inetyhefu Ukusetyenziswa kwizixhobo zokupakisha, icandelo lezinto zokwakha kumbhobho, iingcango kunye neefestile.

I-LDPE (i-polyethylene esezantsi) ikhowudi ye-4, ekwabizwa ngokuba yi-polyethylene ephezulu yoxinzelelo, izinto ezingafunekiyo zimhlophe zimhlophe, zinambitheka kwaye azinetyhefu, ngokucacileyo, ukuthamba okuhle, ukumelana nealkali, kodwa ukumelana nobushushu kunye nezinye izinto, uxinizelelo ngowona mgangatho uphantsi kuyo yonke i-polyethylene, ngaphezulu kwe-110 ℃ iya kukhutshwa ngokunyibilika okushushu kwezinto ezinetyhefu, ikakhulu ezisetyenziselwa ukugcina ifilimu, ifilimu yeplastiki, njl.

 

I-PP (i-polypropylene) ikhowudi yesi-5, ekwabizwa ngokuba yi-100 fold glue, ine-density encinci, evulekileyo kunye nokukhanya okukhanyayo kwezinto ezingafunekiyo, ezingenatyhefu kwaye zingenancasa, amandla aphezulu kunye nokuqina, ukumelana neekhemikhali, ukungqubana nokungqubana, ukumelana nobushushu obuphezulu be-100-120 I-℃, kwaye inokubekwa kwi-oven ye-microwave yokufudumeza, kodwa akuvumelekanga ukusebenzisa iimveliso ezinokuphinda zisetyenziswe ukugcina ukutya. Izinto ze-PP zihlala zisetyenziswa kwiibhokisi zeplastikhi zasemini, iikomityi zamanzi, iibhokisi zokupakisha ukutya kunye nezinye iimveliso, kuba iPP inemali yase-Australia ke yenziwe ngolu hlobo lweplastiki.

I-PS (polystyrene) ikhowudi 6, ekwabizwa ngokuba yirabha enzima, inobulukhuni obuphezulu kune-PP. Imathiriyeli ekrwada ine-transmittance ephezulu, engenambala kwaye engenancasa, kwaye kulula ukuyidaya. Nangona kunjalo, ubunzima bayo buhlwempuzekile kwaye bunzima. Xa ubushushu budlula i-70 degrees, iya kukhupha izinto eziyingozi. Ixhaphake kakhulu kwiibhokisi zasemini ezilahlwayo, iipakethe zempahla, izinto zokuhombisa, njl.njl, kuba akukho lula ukuphinda zisetyenziswe kwakhona, kwaye ngoku ngokuthe chu zibuyisela ngezixhobo zamaphepha.

I-PA (i-polyamide), ekwabizwa ngokuba yi-nylon, ayinayo ikhowudi. Izinto ezingafunekiyo azinetyhefu kwaye azinavumba, ngokuqina okuhle, ukunxiba okunganyangekiyo, ukumelana nobushushu kunye nokumelana neekhemikhali. Zininzi iintlobo zeeplastiki ze-PA. Ngokukodwa ngoku, ngokudibanisa izinto ezahlukeneyo zefayibha, ukusebenza kweeplastikhi ze-PA kuye kwaphuculwa kakhulu, okuthe kwathathelwa indawo ezinye izinyithi, kwaye kusetyenziswa ngokubanzi kwiindawo zeemoto, iqokobhe lesixhobo sasekhaya, amanqaku okhuselo kunye nezinye iinkalo.

Iplastiki ye-ABS nayo ayinayo ikhowudi. Yindibaniselwano ye-acrylonitrile (a), butadiene (b) kunye ne-styrene (c), ekwabizwa ngokuba yi-resin yeABS. Ke i-ABS inentsebenzo eqhelekileyo yezi zinto zintathu, ezinje ngokuchasana nefuthe, ukumelana nobushushu, ukumelana nobushushu obuphantsi, ukusebenza kakuhle okubanzi, ixabiso eliphantsi, ukusetyenziswa ngokubanzi, ukungabinetyhefu, ukungabi nasongo, ukuguquguquka okanye amasuntswana aselubala ngokubonakala. Amalungu amaninzi emoto enziwe ngeplastikhi ye-ABS, iinxalenye kwizixhobo zasekhaya kunye noomatshini baseofisini benziwe nge-ABS.

Ezinye iindidi, ikhowudi ye-7, ibandakanya i-acrylic, i-polycarbonate, i-polylactic acid, njl.njl.Iimpawu zeeplastikhi kukuba azinakufudunyezwa kwi-oveni ye-microwave, ayinakufakwa inzala kubushushu obuphezulu, ayinakubonakaliswa ngokuthe ngqo ilanga, kuba linokukhulula i-bisphenol A, lenze ingozi emzimbeni womntu, njl.

Njengokuba kunjalo, ukukhula kweeplastikhi kudlula ngaphaya koku kungasentla. Zonke iintlobo zeeplastiki zokwenziwa zenza abantu badideke ngesiquphe. Usenokuba ukhe weva ukuba i-PBT (kunye nesilwanyana sasekhaya, ngokudibeneyo ekubhekiswa kuso njenge-thermoplastic polyester), ihips (ifuthe le-polystyrene enganyangekiyo, eyaziwa ngokuba ziiplastikhi zobunjineli), i-POM (i-polymethylaldehyde thermoplastic crystalline polymer), i-EVA (eyenziwe ngomxube yi-ethylene kunye ne-acetic acid), njl zininzi kakhulu, akukho mzekelo apha.

Uya kufumanisa ukuba zininzi iimveliso zeplastiki ngaphandle kweekhowudi zokuchonga, ke unokwazi njani ukuba ziziphi izinto zeplastiki ezizizo? Ukongeza ekusebenziseni izixhobo zobuchwephesha kuhlalutyo, kukho iindlela eziphambili nezilula zokuchonga. Ewe, le ndlela yenzelwe ukubhekisa kuphela, kwaye ayinakugqiba ngokupheleleyo uhlobo lweplastiki.

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Uvavanyo lokuqina lokwahlulahlulahlula izinto ngokobuninzi beplastiki. Ukuxinana kweplastiki eqhelekileyo kwintengiso kuya kuba phakathi kwe-0.9-2.0g / cm3 xa kungekho zinto zongezwayo. Ukuxinana kwamanzi ngokuchanekileyo yi-1g / cm3. Kwiiplastiki eziqhelekileyo, yi-PP kunye ne-PE kuphela ezinobuninzi obungaphantsi kwe-1.0, ke i-PP kunye ne-PE ziyakwazi ukudada ngaphezulu kwamanzi xa zifakwa emanzini. Ezinye izinto zeplastiki zinoxinano oluphezulu Amanzi aya kutshona ezantsi.

Kuvavanyo lokutsha, ukuba ufuna ukwahlula ngokucacileyo zonke iintlobo zezinto zeplastiki, unokuzahlula ngokutshisa. Uvavanyo lokutsha kukutshisa zonke iintlobo zezinto zeplastiki, jonga iimpawu kunye notshintsho kwinkqubo, emva koko ugwebe izinto zeplastiki. Iindawo eziqwalaselweyo zezi: urhulumente ushiya umthombo womlilo, ivumba lomlilo, umbala emva kwelangatye, kunye noluhlu olulula lokutsha Iziphumo zovavanyo oluvuthayo zisekwe kwiziphumo ezizodwa zeplastiki, ezingenakusetyenziswa njengesayensi isiseko sokwahlula iiplastiki.

 

Isilwanyana sitshisa kwaye sikhuphe umsi omnyama ngencasa emuncu.

I-PP inokutshisa lonke ixesha. Idangatye limthubi naluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka. Kukho ivumba lekhandlela. I-PS inokutshisa lonke ixesha. Idangatye limthubi kwaye limnyama ngumsi. Emva kokutsha, kukho uthuli lwekhabhoni kunye nepine yeoyile

I-ABS inokutsha ngokukhawuleza kwaye ngokuqhubekekayo emva kokutsha. Idangatye limthubi kwaye limnyama ngumsi. Emva kokutsha, ithamba ngaphandle kokuvuza, kwaye ivumba leerabha linzima kakhulu

Idangatye le-PE limthubi naluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka. Ithamba kwaye ithontsize emva kokutsha. Kukho ivumba leparafini evuthayo. (ngaba wazitshisa iingxowa zeplastiki xa wawusengumntwana, imvakalelo yokuvela kunye nokuwa ayilibalekanga, khumbula iintlungu ezandleni zakho?)

I-PA akukho lula ukuyitshisa, kwaye iya kucinywa emva kokushiya umthombo womlilo. Idangatye limthubi, mthubi namhlophe ngumsi. Emva kokutsha, idla amagwebu kwaye iyavuza, inevumba lesikhumba segusha neenzipho;

 

I-PVC akukho lula ukuyitshisa, kwaye iya kuphuma emva kokushiya umthombo womlilo. Idangatye liluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka kwaye liluhlaza ngomsi. Kunzima ukuthamba emva kokutsha, kwaye inencasa emuncu. (ifilimu enzima yokuncipha kwiphakheji yi-PCV)

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Njengoko abantu behlawula ngakumbi nangakumbi kwimpilo yomzimba, i-bisphenol A ihlala ivela kwiingxelo ezahlukeneyo. I-Bisphenol A, ekwabizwa ngokuba yi-BPA, i-crystal emhlophe, isetyenziselwa ukwenza i-epoxy resin kunye ne-polycarbonate. Isetyenziswa ngokubanzi njengegunya lokuvelisa kwiimveliso zeplastiki, ezinje ngeebhotile zamanzi, izixhobo zonyango, iibhotile zobisi kunye nezinye iimveliso. Ukongeza i-bisphenol A kunokwenza iimveliso zeplastikhi zingenambala kwaye zibonakalise, ziphucule ubunzima kunye nokukhanya, kufunyenwe ngophando lokuba i-bisphenol A yimichiza enetyhefu esezantsi, enokubangela ukwenzakala emzimbeni womntu, ngakumbi kwimpilo yeentsana nabantwana abancinci. Ngoku, amazwe amaninzi e-China kunye nehlabathi athintela i-bisphenol A ekubeni isetyenziswe kwiibhotile zabantwana, iibhotile zamanzi kunye nezinye iimveliso.

 

Ngenxa yokwanda kokusetyenziswa kweeplastikhi, imveliso yeplastiki yehlabathi iyanda. Uninzi lwezi plastikhi lwenziwa inkunkuma, ngakumbi ezinye iimveliso zeplastiki ezilahlwayo. Inxalenye enkulu yazo ayiphinde isetyenziswe, eya kuthi ekugqibeleni yonakalise izilwanyana kunye nomhlaba.

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Ngethamsanqa, ngoku abantu babuqondile ubungozi bayo, kwaye baqalisile ukuthatha amanyathelo ahlukeneyo, njengokunciphisa ukusetyenziswa kweeplastikhi ezilahlwayo, ukusebenzisa izinto ezinokuphinda zisebenze, ukusebenzisa ezinye izinto ukubola kweeplastikhi, kunye nokusebenzisa ezinye iintsholongwane ukunciphisa ixesha lokwehla kweplastikhi ukusuka kumakhulu yeminyaka ukuya kwiintsuku nje ezimbalwa. Iiplastiki ziphantse kuyo yonke indawo. Kuphela ngokuqonda ngokupheleleyo iiplastikhi esinokuthi sisebenzise kakuhle iiplastikhi ngaxeshanye, inokunciphisa ungcoliseko lweplastiki emhlabeni.

 


Ixesha Post: Dec-10-2019

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